A wonderful video demonstrating the working of an eye..

for more videos-


is refractive surgery a boon? by Dr Parul Sharma

Dr Parul Sharma, an experienced ophthalmologist, rightly states, “Your eyes are your window to the world.”

Throughout our lives, we mostly learn from what we see. Having good visual abilities not just contribute to our physical well-being, but is also extremely crucial for our cognitive development. Poor eye health may hamper the ability to carry out everyday tasks in children and adults alike.

The most common eye concerns that affect a majority of individuals are refractive errors. These may include:
  • Ø  Myopia (near-sightedness):When the vision is clear while looking at closely-placed objects, but gets blurry while looking at the far ones.
  • Ø  Hyperopia (farsightedness):When the vision is blurred while looking at closely-placed objects, but gets clear while looking at the far ones
  • Ø  Presbyopia:A middle and old-age problem when the near vision gets blurry.
  • Ø  Astigmatism: A defect in cornea’s curvature that causes focus problems.

A person affected by any refractive error may be troubled by excessive strain in the eyes, headaches, double vision, haziness, glare or halos. This may further lead to poor performance at school or work, disruptive behaviour, and lack of confidence or self-esteem.

Dr Parul Sharma, a senior eye specialist in Gurgaon and Head of Department at Max Hospital explains that refractive errors can be corrected by wearing glasses or contact lenses.However, for those who wish to get rid of the glasses permanently can opt for refractive surgery.

Laser refractive procedures include:
Ø  LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis): It is the most popular laser procedure to correct refractive errors. Pain-free and quick, the surgery improves vision and eliminates the need wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses.A thorough vision examination allows the eye surgeon to evaluate whether an individual is suitable for LASIK surgery or not.

In some cases, the patient may be suggested other vision correction procedures, such as:
Ø  PRK (photo-refractive keratectomy)and LASEK (laser subepithelialkeratomileusis) eye surgery
Ø  ICL (implantable collamer lens) surgery
Ø  Phakicintraocular lenses surgery

Dr Parul Sharmaalso throws light on the fact that there are a number of parameters that determine the choice of refractive procedure. Such factors could be the age of the patient, the type and degree of the refractive error, underlining health conditions, and so on. Consulting an expert for safe spectacle removal is, therefore, highly recommended.

You could simply visit http://drparulsharma.com/ and book an appointment with Dr Parul Sharma for a detailed eye check-up. She is a Senior Eye Surgeon at Max Eye Care,Panchsheel Park/Saket (Delhi). Get in touch with her to know everything about refractive errors and related surgeries. 



Frequently Asked Questions-
What is the primary role of the cornea?
The cornea is the transparent and protective outermost layer of the eye. This dome-shaped surface shields the entire front part of the eye that includes the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. This strong, durable and clear layer protects the eye from dust, or germs. Other parts of the eye like the eye socket, tears, eyelids, and sclera help the cornea to perform the protective task.

Also, the cornea keeps a check on the entry of light into the eye. Dr Parul Sharma says, It acts as a filter to screen out the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays and protects the lens as well as the retina from the damage caused by UV radiation. More than 65% of the total focusing power of the eye is managed by the cornea.

What happens when the cornea gets injured?
It is common for the cornea to heal on its own after minor injuries or abrasions in the eye. An injury that is deep can lead to corneal scarring, pain, redness, blurred vision, light sensitivity and pain. Such symptoms can be cured with professional treatment and the healing process may take a little longer. Deeper scratches and injuries on the cornea can also impair the vision to a great extent and may demand corneal transplant.

What are the common problems that affect the cornea?
Allergy: Eye allergies are common and may lead itchiness, burning, redness, tearing, and stinging. Chances of being affected by pollen-related eye allergies are high in dry and warm. Such allergies usually do not need special medical attention and can be easily cured with the use of antihistamine decongestant eye drops.

Conjunctivitis: The condition refers to the infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva, which is a thin, clear tissue layer lining the inner eyelid and the eyeball’s outer membrane. The most common symptoms of the disease include redness, burning, itching, pain and swelling in the eye.
Extremely contagious in nature, conjunctivitis usually occurs because of an eye allergy or a viral infection. Certain ingredients in cosmetics, environmental agents, eye drops, or contact lenses can also irritate the eye and cause conjunctivitis.

Conjunctivitis has no adverse effect on a person’s vision. However, seeking a professional’s help on time is important. If not treated on time, the inflammation may spread and cause severe corneal infection, which can also hamper the vision.

Dry eye: According to Dr. Parul Sharma of Max Hospital, this eye disorder is marked by production of fewer or less quality tears, making the eye dry and uncomfortable. The dryness often leads to a scratchy or sandy feeling in the eye. Other symptoms include burning or stinging sensation, redness, and pain. In some cases, dryness in the eye is often experienced after long episodes of excess tearing.

Keratitis:It is the painful inflammation of the cornea that is usually a result of an attack by a foreign object. An infection caused by bacteria or fungi/viruses can also cause Keratitis.
This can further lead to corneal scarring, corneal discharges, destruction of the cornea, and poor vision. A corneal transplant, thus, may be required. Contact lens wearers are most prone to such corneal infections.

Anti-bacterial eye drops can be used for treating minor corneal infections. Intensive antibiotic or anti-fungal treatment may be prescribed if the condition worsens. In such cases, inflammation can also be reduced using steroid eye drops. The patient might need to go for regular check-ups by a specialised eye care professional for a long period of time to get rid of the problem completely.

Keratoconus:It refers to the cornea’s progressive thinning. The thinning usually starts from the middle and bulges outwards. The gradual accumulation takes a round conical shape. The cornea’s abnormal curvature can lead to problems like near-sightedness, double or blurred vision, astigmatism, sensitivity to light, and sight-impairing scarring.

In most cases, both eyes are usually affected with the condition at the same time. The problems related to vision can be corrected initially with the use of glasses or soft contact lenses. A person may require specially-fitted contact lenses if astigmatism worsens and leads to severe distortion.
It may take the cornea a few years to stabilise completely. In some cases, severe corneal scarring may make it difficult for the patient totolerate a contact lens. The eye specialist, thus, may suggest a corneal transplant. A technique called collagen cross-linking may prove effective in selected keratoconus cases.

Troubled by an eye ailment? Consult Dr Parul Sharma, Head of Department at Max Hospital (Gurgaon) and Senior Eye Surgeon at Max Eye Care, Panchsheel Park/Saket (Delhi). Visit http://drparulsharma.com/index.php and book an appointment today. 


FAQs on Squint

What is squinting?
Medically referred to as Strabismus, squint is a visual flaw that leads to misalignment of the eyes. This visual defect causes both the eyes to point in different directions. While one eye may appear pointing straight ahead, the other one may diverge (turn outward), or converge (turn inward). The squinting eye may also turn upward or downward. Such a misalignment could be constant in nature or may occur briefly for multiple times in a day. Also, the condition and occurrence may alternate between both eyes.

What are the primary causes of squint?
A number of factors might cause squinting, such as weakness of eye muscles (that are responsible for eye movement), eye injury, cataract, refractive errors, genetics, cerebral palsy, Down’s syndrome, or hydrocephalus.

What does a squint assessment session include?
An orthoptist may conduct a series of clinical tests to assess the condition of a patient’s eyes. These tests aim at:
  • Identifying the type and severity of squint
  • Assessing refractive errors
  • Testing binocular vision
  • Conducting dilated fundus examination
  • Analysing the fixation pattern
  • Investigating the main cause of squint
Is squint just a cosmetic defect?
No, squinting can be much more than just a cosmetic flaw. It could be related to the problem of diplopia (double vision), decrease of vision, or poor binocular vision (inability to focus on one object with both eyes simultaneously). Squint can also result in gradual loss of peripheral visual field, and fine stereopsis (depth perception).

How can strabismus or squinting be treated?
The treatment options for strabismus or squinting may include:
  • The use of glasses
  • Fixing or embedding prisms on spectacle lenses
  • Wearing an eye patch
  • Botox injection
  • Surgery
Can squint affect infants and young children?
Yes, squint can occur at any age. The cause may not necessarily be known. However, once suspected, accurate assessment of the baby’s condition must be done at the earliest. In some cases, it could be pseudostrabismus (false appearance of crossed eyes or misalignment). It is because of the fact that facial features do not fully develop in infants and toddlers. A wide and flat nose bridge might give an illusion of squint, whichusuallygoes away with age.

What causeschildhood squint?
Congenital squint: It is a condition when a baby is born with misaligned eyes. The problem may become more apparent within the first six months. One of the main reasons could be heredity or family history of squinting.
Far-sightedness or hypermetropia: It refers to problems with near vision. A blurry or poor near vision demands extra efforts in order to view an object placed closer to the eyes. Over-focussing may further lead to the problem of double vision. The eyes unconsciously try to correct the defect by supressing images in one eye. As a result, the child might avoid relying on that eye at all. Effective treatment, at the right time, is crucial so as to prevent squinting or development of amblyopia (lazy eye).
Childhood illnesses: Squint may also be result ofcertain childhood illnesses, such as viral fever, measles, meningitis, etc.
Eye injuries: Injuries or damage caused to eye muscles or nerves might also be responsible for squint.
Hereditary: Strabismus may also be inherited from parents.

What are the ways of correcting squint in children?
To start with, a child’s eyes must the thoroughly examined in order to identify the type and severity of the squint. An orthoptist will assess the vision and fixation pattern and will devise a treatment plan accordingly. The treatment could vary from the use of spectacles, patching, use of eye drops (rarely) or surgery.
The squint caused by hypermetropia (far-sightedness) can be treated withthe use of spectacles. The eye specialist may conduct regular examinations to keep a check on the fluctuations in the power of spectacles and the degree of squint as the child grows. The squint that still remains can also be treated with surgery, if required.
Amblyopia or Lazy eye can be corrected by wearing a patch on the eye that works fine. It is a way of encouraging the weaker eye to be more involved in visual activities.
Surgery is also one of the methods to correct this visual defect. If done at the right way, at the right time, the results can be great.

What leads to the occurrence of squint in adults?
An orthoptist or eye surgeon conducts a thorough examination to diagnose the cause, type, and severity of the squint in adults. There could be two types of squint ─ paralytic or non-paralytic. Paralytic squint is often a result of damage of theextraocular muscles or nerves. The occurrence of the condition is usually sudden, and could be caused due to certain medical issues like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or brain lesion. However, it couldalso be a birth defect or may develop gradually over the years. On the other hand, non-paralytic is an extraocular muscular imbalance that is rarely sudden and often occur shortly after birth or can be gradual.

Is there a specific age to get the squint corrected?
Anyone who has squint can get it corrected at any point of time. The treatment is not age-specific. However, the type of the treatment may vary for patients from different age groups.

What is the procedure of squint surgery?
The eye socket features six extraocular muscles that control the movement of the eyeball. An eye surgeon usually weakens or strengthens (as per the alignment defect) 2 or more muscles to make the eyeball appear straight. General anaesthesia is given to children before the surgery, while adults usually are made to undergo the surgery on local anaesthesia. It is an outpatient procedure and doesn’t require an overstay stay at the hospital.

What is it that a patient will experience after the surgery?
The operation for squint is an outpatient surgery, which means there is no need for the patient to get admitted for an overnight stay. The patient can remove the eye pad a day post the surgery. Also, the patient is usually prescribes medicated eye drops to be instilled for a couple of weeks after the surgery. Moreover, it doesn’t affect the vision as it is an external surgery. The sutures are self-absorbable and do not need another session in order to be removed. Redness in the eyes may be experienced initially, but the patient may resume his or her daily in a few days.

Can surgery for squint cause double vision?
Surgically aligning the eyes, which have been misaligned for many years in the past, may lead to some degree of double vision. Having said that, the problem of double vision is usually transient.The brain will gradually adapt to the new position or alignment of the eyes.

How many surgeries are usually required to correct squint?
It is common for a patient to undergo more than one surgery in order to get rid of the squint completely. There is nothing to be worried about. The idea is to obtain best alignment results by a couple of fine-tunings. Also at times, a severe squint may require a multiple-staged surgery.
#drparulsharma #drparulsharmareviews #drparulsharmamaxhospital #drparulmsharmanewdelhi


Sight Saving Month, Gurgaon By Dr Parul Sharma

Dear All, here is what you have been waiting for a very long time- Free consultation for Senior Citizens, Interactive session on Diabetes and Eye Problems and huge discounts on Cataract Surgery. What are you waiting for, grab the opportunity and rush to the mentioned address. Stay Healthy, Stay Happy :) 
#drparulsharma #maxeyecare #maxhospital #Drparulsharmamaxhospital